Get Latest Exam news, Private & Government Job Alerts and Free Study Materials for Exam preparations.

Introduction to Indian Judiciary

The judiciary is that branch of the government that interprets the law, settles disputes and administers justice to all citizens. The judiciary is considered the watchdog of democracy, and also the guardian of the Constitution. For democracy to function effectively, it is imperative to have an impartial and independent judiciary.

Independent Indian Judiciary

An Independent Indian Judiciary means that the other branches of the government, namely, the executive and the legislature, do not interfere with the judiciary’s functioning.

The judiciary’s decision is respected and not interfered with by the other organs. It also means that judges can perform their duties without fear or favour.

Independence of the judiciary also does not mean that the judiciary functions arbitrarily and without any accountability. It is accountable to the Constitution of the country.

How Indian Judiciary is granted its independence?

The Constitution of India provides for a number of provisions that ensure that the independence of the judiciary is maintained and protected.

India has a single integrated judicial system. The judiciary in India has a pyramidal structure with the Supreme Court (SC) at the top. High Courts are below the SC, and below them are the district and subordinate courts. The lower courts function under the direct superintendence of the higher courts.

There are also two branches of the legal system, which are: Criminal Law and Civil Law

What is Criminal Law?

Criminal law deal with the committing of a crime by any citizen/entity. A criminal case starts when the local police file a crime report. The court finally decides on the matter.

What is Civil Law?

Civil Law deal with disputes over the violation of the Fundamental Rights of a citizen.

The Supreme Court of India has three types of jurisdictions. They are original, appellate and advisory.